OSPF is a Link-State routing protocol. OSPF compared with other routing protocols is by far the most complex IGP out there. OSPF is also the most widely used IGP in Enterprise Networks.
Some key points to remember:
- Defined in RFC 2328 for IPv4 and RFC 2740 for IPv6.
- Uses the Dijkstra SPF algorithm.
- Supports only IP routing.
- Has its own IP Protocol for transport: IP/89
- OSPF is a classless IP protocol, thus supports VLSM and CIDR addressing.
- Use hello packets to form adjacencies.
- Multicast 126.96.36.199 for all Routers
- Multicast 188.8.131.52 for DR/BDR Routers
- Supports Unicast neighbors.
- Supports Authentication.
- NULL (Type 0) – default
- Plain-Text (Type 1)
- MD5 (Type 2)
- Uses cost as it’s metric and use the link bandwidth to calculate it.
- Cost = Reference Bandwidth / Link Bandwidth.
- The Administrative distance of OSPF is 110.
- OSPF employs a hierarchical network design based on areas.
- OSPF areas are identified by 32-bit numbers. (i.e. area 1 or area 0.0.0.1)
- OSPF routers form adjacencies only with directly connected routers and the following must match:
- Area type
- Hello/dead timers
- Network Type
- OSPF routers use a link-state database (LSDB) which contains the topology information within the area.
- The OSPF LSDB is identical for all routers in the same area.
- The topology of an area is hidden from the rest of the Autonomous System.
- OSPF advertises the status of its directly connected links using link-state advertisements (LSAs).
- OSPF LSAs sends triggered updates.
- OSPF LSAs are refreshed every 30 minutes by default.
- In OSPF, only Area Border Routers (ABRs) or Autonomous System Border Routers (ASBRs) can summarize routes.
OSPF Router Types
- Backbone Router – Is a router with an interface configured in area 0.
- Internal Router – Is a router with all of its interfaces configured within the same area.
- Area Border Router (ABR) – Is a router with interfaces connected in two or more areas.
- Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) – Is a router connecting to external routing domains. Typically receiving routes via redistribution.
OSPF Protocol Messages
- Type 1- Hello packet – It’s used for dynamic discovery of neighbors and to maintain the neighbor relationship. OSPF hello packets are also used to elect DR and BDR on broadcast and NBMA networks.
- Type 2- Database Descriptor packet (DBD or DD) – It’s used for link-state database synchronization. Send summaries of router’s known LSAs to neighbors.
- Type 3- Link State Request packet (LSR) – Once a neighbor has received a Type 2 (DBD) packet, checks against its database. If the DBD is more up-to-date or it has more info, the router asks for full LSA through an LSR.
- Type 4- Link State Update packet (LSU) – It’s used to respond to Type 3 (LSR) with the detail information for the requested LSA.
- Type 5- Link State Acknowledgment packet (LSAck) – It’s used to acknowledge the reception of Type 4 (LSU) packet.
Link-State Advertisements – LSAs
- Type 1 – Router LSA – It’s originated by all routers, list the link states of the interfaces connected to the area. Flooded to all routers within the area.
- Type 2 – Network LSA – It’s originated by the DR on multi-access networks. List all routers on adjacent segments. Flooded to all routers within the area.
- Type 3 – Network LSA – It’s generated by an ABR. Advertise routes to destinations outside the area but within the same Autonomous System. (allows inter-area communication)
- Type 4 – Summary LSA – It’s injected by an ABR to advertise routes to AS boundary routers.
- Type 5 – AS-External LSA – It’s generated by ASBR and flooded throughout the AS to advertise default routes or external networks outside the local AS.
- Type 7 – NSSA External LSA – It’s generated by ASBR and is used to flood AS external routes through a stub area. Type 7 LSA is converted into Type 5 LSA by the ABR when leaving the area.
DR and BDR election occurs in multi-access Broadcast and Non-Broadcast network types.
The election of the DR and BDR is authoritative and is based on the Router Priority transmitted in the Hello Packets. By default the priority in OSPF is 1. If there is a tie, then the Router ID (RID) is used as a tie-breaker.
DR/BDRs cannot be preempted by other routers with a higher priority once they have been elected, therefore, the first router to come up will be the DR and the second will be the BDR.
Manually setting the priority to 0 prevents the router to participate in the election.
The HelloInterval and RouterDeadInterval are the two timers that can be manually adjusted to speed up network convergence in an OSPF network.
The hello packets are sent at a configurable interval (in seconds). The default hello timers are 10 seconds for Broadcast and Point-to-Point network types and 30 seconds for NBMA, Multipoint Broadcast, and Multipoint Nonbroadcast networks. The dead interval is also a configurable value (in seconds), and defaults to four times (4x) the value of the hello interval.
- Down – The initial state of an interface. No protocol traffic is transmitted or received on the interface.
- Loopback – The interface is looped back to the network either in hardware or in software.
- Wait – This state is applicable only to interfaces connected to broadcast and NBMA network types. The router is trying to determine the DR and BDR sending hello packets.
- Point-to-Point – This state is applicable only to interfaces connected to point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, and virtual link network types.
- DR – In this state, the router is the DR on the area and will establish adjacencies with the other routers in the multi-access network.
- DROther– In this state, the router is neither DR nor BDR. It will form adjacencies with DR and BDR.
- Backup – In this state, the router is the BDR on the area, and will establish adjacencies with the other routers in the multi-access network.
- Down – Initial state. No hello packet has been received.
- Attempt – Only seen on NBMA networks. The router sends unicast hello packets.
- Init – This state indicates that the router has received a hello packet from its neighbor.
- 2-way – In this state, bidirectional communication has been established. The router has received a hello packet from its neighbor containing its own Router ID in the network field.
- ExStart – In this state, the routers and their DR/BDR has established a master-slave relationship. The router with the higher Router ID becomes the master and starts the exchange.
- Exchange – In this state, routers exchange database descriptor (DBD) packets containing a description of the link-state database. Every DBD packet has a sequence number which can be incremented only by the master router. The contents of the DBD received are compared to the local link-state database to check if new or more current link-state information is available.
- Loading – In this state, the actual exchange of link-state information occurs. Based on the result of compare the received DBD and the local link-state database, routers send link-state request packets. If a router receives an outdated or missing LSA, it requests that particular LSA by sending a link-state request packet (Type-3 LSR).
- Full – In this state the routers are now fully adjacent with each other. The routers databases are fully synchronized.
- Backbone Area – Is essentially a standard area which has been designated as the central point to which all other areas connects.
- Standard Area – Default OSPF area. Type 1 and 2 LSAs are being flooded between routers sharing a common area. It can contain LSAs of type 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, and may contain an ASBR.
- Stub Area – Instead of propagating individual external routes (type 5 LSAs) into the area, the ABR injects a type 3 LSA containing a default route into the stub area.
- Totally Stubby Area – Totally stubby areas do not receive type 3, 4 or 5 LSAs from their ABRs. All routing out of the area relies on the single default route injected by the ABR.
- Not So Stubby Area (NSSA) – Is a stub area containing an ASBR; type 7 LSAs are converted to type 5 by ABRS and then flooded to the rest of the OSPF domain.
OSPF Path Selection
The path selection in OSPF can be achieved by the following methods:
- Using “bandwidth” interface command. (May affects QoS)
- “ip ospf cost” interface command. (Best method)
- “auto-cost reference-bandwidth” under the OSPF process. (Must be changed in all routers running OSPF)
- “neighbor x.x.x.x cost” under the OSPF process.
OSPF Route Preference
When there are multiple routes available to the same network with different route types, routers use the following order of preference:
- O – OSPF (intra-area)
- IA – OSPF inter area
- E1 – OSPF external type 1
- E2 – OSPF external type 2
- N1 – OSPF NSSA external type 1
- N2 – OSPF NSSA external type 2
If there are multiple routes to a network with the same route type, the route with the lowest cost is chosen as the best route.
If there are multiple routes to a network with the same route type and cost, it chooses all the routes to be installed in the routing table, then the router does equal cost load balancing.
All areas in an OSPF autonomous system must be connected to area 0 (Backbone Area). When this is not possible in terms of direct connectivity, then a virtual link can be used to connect the non-backbone areas to area 0, as long as there is a common area between them.
- Connects two areas 0 or extends area 0 across a transit area.
- Uses a transit area in order to connect areas 0 or extend area 0.
- Configured between ABRs under the OSPF process using the Router ID.
- in: filter the routes from entering the RIB
- out: filter the redistributed routes (E1/E2) entering OSPF on an ASBR
- Stub Area
- Stub (filter LSA-5)
- Totally stub (filter LSA-3/4/5)
- NSSA (filter LSA-5, allow LSA-7)
- Totally NSSA (filter LSA-3/4/5, allow LSA-7)
- LSA-3 prefix filter
- “area x filter-list prefix <prefix_list_name>“
OSPF prefix summarization can only be done on ABRs and ASBR.
- Type-3 summary (ABR)
- Use the “area x range” OSPF process command.
- Type-5 summary (ASBR)
- Use the “summary-address” OSPF process command.
When summarizing on ABR or ASBR, a “discard route” will be automatically added to the RIB by default to prevent routing loops.
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